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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 227-232

Association of cord blood insulin-like growth factor-1 and leptin levels and changes in fetal weight gain in the third trimester of pregnancy

1 Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University/Dr. Kariadi Hospital, Semarang, Indonesia
2 Department of Obstetric Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University/Dr. Kariadi Hospital, Semarang, Indonesia

Correspondence Address:
Maria Mexitalia
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University/Dr. Kariadi Hospital, Semarang
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcn.jcn_32_21

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Context: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and leptin are hormones impacting somatic growth regulation and organ development in early fetal life. Aims: The study aimed to investigate the correlation between IGF-1 and leptin levels with birth weight and fetal weight gain during pregnancy third trimester. Settings and Design: A cohort study included 52 newborns from Semarang, Indonesia. Subjects and Methods: Serum IGF-1 and leptin were taken from the umbilical cord, and the estimated fetal weight in the third trimester was measured by ultrasound. Anthropometric data were plotted to the World Health Organization Fetal Growth Chart 2017. We divided three categories, i.e., weight gain faltering, if the infant decreased of two major percentiles (G1), normal weight gain (G2), and accelerated weight gain, whose increased more than two major percentiles (G3). Statistical Analysis Used: Fetal growth and other parameters were analyzed using Pearson's or Spearman's rho correlation. The comparison of IGF-1 and leptin levels among G1, G2, and G3 was analyzed by one-way ANOVA, least significant difference post hoc test, Kruskal–Wallis, and Mann–Whitney tests. Results: The mean IGF-1 level in G1 was 82.9 (25.9) ng/mL, G2 was 86.2 (28.9), and G3 was 134.8 (33.9), and there were significant differences between G1–G3 and G2–G3. Meanwhile, the levels of leptin among groups were not different. Birth weight was correlated with the level of IGF-1 (r = 0.456, P = 0.001) and leptin (r = 0.39, P = 0.004), and maternal body mass index was correlated with cord blood leptin. Conclusions: This study indicated that a higher IGF-1 and leptin cord blood level is correlated with larger birth weight.

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