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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 65-70

Clinical profile, laboratory parameters, management and outcomes of newborns with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (mis-n) due to transplacental transfer of SARS-CoV 2 antibodies: A study from a tertiary care institute

1 Department of Paediatrics and Neonatology, Sri Ramachandra Children's and Dental Hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Psychiatry, Guntur Medical College, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Lokeswari Balleda
Sri Ramachandra Children's and Dental Hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcn.jcn_1_22

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Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a well-known entity that occurs 3–4 weeks after COVID-19. A similar entity in newborns, known as Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Newborns (MIS-N), is also described. However, the epidemiology, case definition, clinical presentations, and outcomes of MIS-N are still being updated. The presence of SARS CoV 2 antibodies in both the mother and the neonate suggests transplacental transfer of IgG antibodies causing cytokine storm and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in newborns (MIS-N). Aims and Objectives: To investigate the clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters, outcomes, and treatment modalities of neonates with multisystem inflammatory syndrome due to transplacental transfer of SARS CoV 2 antibodies. Materials and Methods: The study included eighteen consecutive neonates who met the MIS-C criteria. Following prior ethical clearance and consent from parents or guardians, socio-demographic data, lab parameters, clinical parameters, and treatment given were documented, tabulated, and analysed. Results: All of the 18 neonates had fever. The most common system involved was the respiratory system (15/18), followed by the cardiovascular system with coronary artery dilatations (10/18) and persistent pulmonary hypertension (4/18). All 17 cases (17/18) responded favourably to intravenous immunoglobulins (2 gm/kg) and intravenous dexamethasone (0.15 mg/kg). D-Dimers decreased significantly after treatment, with a p value of 0.01. One case with more than three systems involved (respiratory, CVS, CNS, and renal involvement) (1/18) resulted in death. Conclusion: A high index of suspicion is warranted in critically ill neonates, especially with fever, multisystem involvement and positive SARS CoV 2 antibodies. Fever may be a soft pointer to the diagnosis as fever is rare in neonates with other illnesses. Followup antibody titres are needed to document if there is any relationship between level of antibodies and disease. Safety of vaccination also needs to be addressed as antibodies are implicated in the etiopathogenesis of MIS-N.

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